3 – Conditionals: zero, first and second


MEANING: is used for add more information about any people, place or thing. Are formed by relative pronoun WHO, THAT and WHICH.

Subject+verb+direct object.


WHO: Use to refer to people

THAT: Use to refer to things, animals or people.

WHICH: Use to refer animals, things (NOT people)


I was invited to a party. The party was not very exciting.
I was invited to a party which was not very exciting.

This woman is my sister. She lives next door.
This woman is my sister who lives next door.

I visited Piracicaba. It’s a beautiful city.
I visited Piracicaba that a beautiful city.


MEANING: Gerunds are nouns
made with the ING form of a verb.

Subject + be + Verb ing + complement.

USE: To express an action.


She loves swimming in the lake.

James is washing the car in his garage.

He is interested in buying the car.

I am visiting the museum.


Zero: The condition is always true.
First Conditional: real possibility:

We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?

IF + condition + result
present simple WILL + base verb
If it rains I will stay at home.

The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen.

IF condition result
present simple WILL + base verb
If I see Mary I will tell her.
If Tara is free tomorrow he will invite her.
If they do not pass their exam their teacher will be sad.

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